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Medicinal Chemistry 1

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Unit 1

Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry

History and development of medicinal chemistry

Physicochemical properties in relation to biological action: Ionization, Solubility, Partition Coefficient, Hydrogen bonding, Protein binding, Chelation, Bioisosterism, Optical and Geometrical isomerism.

Drug metabolism: Drug metabolism principles- Phase I and Phase IIFactors affecting drug metabolism including stereo chemical aspects.

Unit 2

Drugs acting on Autonomic Nervous System

Adrenergic Neurotransmitters: Biosynthesis and catabolism of catecholamine.Adrenergic receptors (Alpha & Beta) and their distribution.

Sympathomimetic agents: SAR of Sympathomimetic agents

  • Direct acting: Nor-epinephrine, Epinephrine, Phenylephrine*, Dopamine, Methyldopa, Clonidine, Dobutamine, Isoproterenol, Terbutaline, Salbutamol*, Bitolterol, Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline.

  • Indirect acting agents: Hydroxyamphetamine, Pseudoephedrine, Propylhexedrine.

  • Agents with mixed mechanism: Ephedrine, Metaraminol.

Adrenergic Antagonists :

Alpha adrenergic blockers: Tolazoline*, Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine, Prazosin, Dihydroergotamine, Methysergide.

Beta adrenergic blockers: SAR of beta blockers, Propranolol*, Metibranolol, Atenolol, Betazolol, Bisoprolol, Esmolol, Metoprolol, Labetolol, Carvedilol.

Unit 3

Cholinergic neurotransmitters: Biosynthesis and catabolism of acetylcholine. Cholinergic receptors (Muscarinic & Nicotinic) and their distribution.

Parasympathomimetic agents: SAR of Parasympathomimetic agents

Direct acting agents: Acetylcholine, Carbachol*, Bethanechol, Methacholine, Pilocarpine.

Indirect acting/ Cholinesterase inhibitors (Reversible & Irreversible): Physostigmine, Neostigmine*, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium chloride, Tacrine hydrochloride, Ambenonium chloride, Isofluorphate, Echothiophate iodide, Parathione, Malathion.

Cholinesterase reactivator: Pralidoxime chloride.

Cholinergic Blocking agents: SAR of cholinolytic agents

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Atropine sulphate, Hyoscyamine sulphate, Scopolamine hydrobromide, Homatropine hydrobromide, Ipratropium bromide*.

Synthetic cholinergic blocking agents: Tropicamide, Cyclopentolate hydrochloride, Clidinium bromide, Dicyclomine hydrochloride*, Glycopyrrolate, Methantheline bromide, Propantheline bromide, Benztropine mesylate, Orphenadrine citrate, Biperidine hydrochloride, Procyclidine hydrochloride*, Tridihexethyl chloride, Isopropamide iodide, Ethopropazine hydrochloride.

Unit 4

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System

A. Sedatives and Hypnotics:

Benzodiazepines:SAR of Benzodiazepines, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam*, Oxazepam, Chlorazepate, Lorazepam, Alprazolam, Zolpidem

Barbiturtes:SAR of barbiturates, Barbital*, Phenobarbital, Mephobarbital, Amobarbital, Butabarbital, Pentobarbital, Secobarbital

Miscelleneous:Amides & imides: Glutethmide.Alcohol & their carbamate derivatives: Meprobomate, Ethchlorvynol.Aldehyde & their derivatives: Triclofos sodium, Paraldehyde.

B. Antipsychotics:

Phenothiazeines:SAR of Phenothiazeines - Promazine hydrochloride, Chlorpromazine hydrochloride*,Triflupromazine, Thioridazine hydrochloride, Piperacetazine hydrochloride,Prochlorperazine maleate, Trifluoperazine hydrochloride.

Ring Analogues of Phenothiazeines:Chlorprothixene, Thiothixene, Loxapine succinate, Clozapine.

Fluro buterophenones: Haloperidol, Droperidol, Risperidone.

Beta amino ketones: Molindone hydrochloride.

Benzamides: Sulpieride.

C. Anticonvulsants:

SAR of Anticonvulsants, mechanism of anticonvulsant action

Barbiturates: Phenobarbitone, Methabarbital.

Hydantoins: Phenytoin*, Mephenytoin, Ethotoin

Oxazolidine diones: Trimethadione, Paramethadione

Succinimides: Phensuximide, Methsuximide, Ethosuximide*

Urea and monoacylureas: Phenacemide, Carbamazepine*

Benzodiazepines: Clonazepam

Miscellaneous: Primidone, Valproic acid , Gabapentin, Felbamate

Unit 5

Drugs acting on Central Nervous System

General anesthetics:

Inhalation anesthetics: Halothane*, Methoxyflurane, Enflurane, Sevoflurane, Isoflurane, Desflurane.

Ultra short acting barbitutrates: Methohexital sodium*, Thiamylal sodium, Thiopental sodium.

Dissociative anesthetics: Ketamine hydrochloride.*

Narcotic and non-narcotic analgesics

Morphine and related drugs: SAR of Morphine analogues, Morphine sulphate, Codeine, Meperidine hydrochloride, Anilerdine hydrochloride, Diphenoxylate hydrochloride, Loperamide hydrochloride, Fentanyl citrate*, Methadone hydrochloride*, Propoxyphene hydrochloride, Pentazocine, Levorphanol tartarate.

Narcotic antagonists: Nalorphine hydrochloride, Levallorphan tartarate, Naloxone hydrochloride.

Anti-inflammatory agents: Sodium salicylate, Aspirin, Mefenamic acid*, Meclofenamate, Indomethacin, Sulindac, Tolmetin, Zomepriac, Diclofenac, Ketorolac, Ibuprofen*, Naproxen, Piroxicam, Phenacetin, Acetaminophen, Antipyrine, Phenylbutazone.

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